Wikiprogress Africa

vendredi 30 août 2013

Shaping the Future We Want: Country Sustainability, Migrating Women and MDGs

Welcome to this week’s roundup of progress initiatives, articles and reports.

  • Innovation Africa Twitterati. In concordance with the upcoming launch of the Africa 2063 strategy and the role of social media in shaping what will be relevant in this panafrican strategy, the Science, Technology, and Globalization Project at Harvard Kennedy School's Belfer Center for Science and International Affairs will regularly recognize 63 leaders to follow on Twitter.

  • Shaping Our Collective Futures by The African Women’s Development and Communication Network calls for contributions related to the state of women in the context of the upcoming review of the  the International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD+20) that was implemented 20 years before. Will we see more progress in gender equality or do we risk going backwards? And what needs to be done to safeguard this progress? The seventh and special edition of the African Women's Journal will seek to address such issues and aspires to make the voices of those most hidden by inequalities (those living with disabilities, pastoralist communities, slum dwellers, rural, indigenous, religious or ethnic minorities) heard.

We hope you enjoyed this review. Stay tuned the same time next week for another roundup of the week that was.

Yours in progress,

jeudi 29 août 2013

Green Economy 2013: A Strategic Briefing on the State of Play in the Global Transition

Green Economy was one of the main ponts of agreement at the 2012 United NationsConference Rio+20 Conference. This report by the Sustainability Intelligence Unit of  the Atkisson Group in partnership with WWF Sweden considers the "state of play" in Green Economy policy and implementation around the world.  The group analyzed over 100 recent Green Economy reports, initiatives, and programs, and summarized them for this 38-page briefing.

This strategic briefing on the state of play in the global transition gives a bird's eye on the issues:
  • Key terms and definitions
  • Models and frameworks of a Green Economy
  • Systematic decoupling as a theme in Green Economy initiatives
  • Alternative indicators of progress
  • Valuing ecosystem services and natural resources
  • Risk and cost assessments of ecosystem damages and climate impacts
  • Green jobs investment and creation
  •  Resource efficiency and decoupling in practice
  • Financial sector standards and criteria
  • Large-scale allocations of capital
  •  Sustainability and resource efficiency as a driver for business
  •  Reflections on strategy for Green Economy advocates

Highlighting points of controversy as well as points of consensus, Green Economy 2013 provides an overview of the whole terrain while providing links to many other sources, studies, organizations, initiatives, and case studies. 

To download the report, please click on this link

Ousmane Aly DIALLO

Quel est l’impact des normes sociales sur la migration féminine?

Wikigender, l’Organisation Internationale pour les Migrations (OIM), le Scalabrini Migration Center (SMC), Wikiprogress et Wikichild aimeraient entendre vos positions concernant les liens entre les normes et pratiques sociales discriminatoires envers les femmes (telles que l’accès limité aux ressources et à la prise de décisions ainsi que les violences contre les femmes) et les processus de migration.

En septembre, le Centre de développement de l’OCDE va publier un rapport thématique sur les migrations selon une perspective de genre, rapport qui s’appuiera sur les récentes découvertes de l’Indice sur les Institutions Sociales et le Genre (SIGI par ses sigles en anglais). Wikigender, l’OIM, le SMC, Wikiprogress et Wikichild vous invitent à participer à une discussion en ligne qui aura lieu du 2 septembre à 9h au 15 septembre à 18h (GMT+1). Les principales conclusions de cette discussion seront présentées dans le rapport thématique et résumées dans un rapport final qui sera disponible sur le portail Wikigender.

La discussion sera centrée autour de cette question :

Cette discussion en ligne sera une occasion unique pour discuter, échanger des points de vue et les meilleures pratiques sur ce sujet. Les participants sont invités à partager les conclusions de leur recherche ou leurs expériences. La discussion s’organisera autour des questions ci-dessous :

Quel est l’impact des normes de genre sur la migration?
  • Dans quelle mesure les normes sociales et pratiques discriminatoires (telles que le statut inférieur de la femme dans la famille, la violence et la discrimination contre les femmes ou l’accès limité aux ressources) influencent-t-elles la migration féminine? Constituent-elles un facteur d’incitation à émigrer?
  • Quelles pratiques ou normes sociales discriminatoires entravent le plus la migration féminine et pourquoi? Quelles sont les solutions?
  • Est-ce que les normes sociales influencent le choix du pays de destination?
Les impacts des modèles de migration genrés
  • Quel rôle jouent les réseaux sociaux pour permettre la migration féminine?
  • Quel est l’impact de la migration masculine/féminine sur les dynamiques familiales dans les pays d’origine et de destination?
  • Dans quelle mesure l’augmentation de la migration féminine influence-t-elle les normes de genre dans les pays d’origine et de destination?
  • Avez-vous des exemples de normes sociales plus restrictives importées par les émigrant(e)s vers leurs communautés d’origine?
Politiques et données statistiques
  • Quelles sont les bonnes pratiques (politiques, initiatives, campagnes et programmes)  qui garantissent les droits humains des migrantes aussi bien dans leurs pays d’origine que d’accueil?
  • Quels sont les indicateurs-clés qui peuvent ou pourraient être collectés afin de mieux comprendre les conséquences sociales et économiques pour les migrantes? Comment peut-on les mesurer?
Nous vous invitons à laisser votre commentaire dans la section « Contribuer! » de la page de discussion. Le lien est et le mot-dièse utilisé sur Twitter est #migration.

Coordinatrice de Wikigender

vendredi 23 août 2013

Realizing Africa's Potential, Integrity Indicators, Climate Conference and the Latin America Network

Hello everyone and welcome to this roundup of Africa-themed progress initiatives, articles and reports. Among this week’s highlights, we found:

  • Special Report on Africa: Realizing Africa’s Potential by This is Africa, The Skoll World Forum and the Rockefeller Foundation. This series aims to find what are going to be the game-changing innovations in the African agricultural sector and how the financing of this sector can be unlocked. Experts from governments, NGOs and the international organizations gives us some answers to these questions. Among the featured articles, there is Uniting Africa to Face Climate Change by Richard Wilcox of the African Union and Ngozi Okonjo-Iweala, Nigeria’s Finance Minister.

  • The Africa Climate Conference 2013 organized under the auspices of the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) and the African Climate Policy Center (ACPC), will bring together decision-makers and climate researchers, scientists and practitioners from Africa and around the world will happen at Arusha, Tanzania from the 15th to the 18th of October of this year. The expected outcome from the Conference is a set of concrete research proposals to address the critical gaps in our knowledge of the African climate system.

  • Join Wikiprogress America Latina  which was spotlighted this week on Wikiprogress. In preparation for the 5th OECD World forum, Wikiprogress America Latina will start a series of discussions around Well-beingQuality of LifeProgress and its relationship with the design and implementation of public policy. Watch this space for updates and further information about the dates and themes so that you can share your experiences and perspectives with us. Do not miss the latest developments on well-being and happiness in Latin America, which are due to be highlighted in this blog and here.

We hope you enjoyed this review. Stay tuned the same time next week for another roundup of the week that was.

Yours in progress,

Reportage spécial sur l'Afrique: Débloquer le potentiel de l'Afrique

Le domaine de l'agriculture en Afrique suscite un vif intérêt auprès des entreprises et des gouvernements qui innovent et mettent en œuvre diverses mesures visant à développer son vaste potentiel. Ce reportage spécial de This is Africa, mis en lumière par Skoll World Forum vise à déterminer les innovations qui vont fondamentalement changer positivement et durablement ce secteur ainsi que les moyens pour attirer les financements dans ce secteurs. Décideurs politiques, hommes d'affaires, et parties prenantes impliquées dans le développement international, en partenariat avec la Fondation Rockefeller et This is Africa s'unissent pour nous donner quelques réponses à ces questions dans ce dossier.

Parmi les articles, il y'a :

Pour en savoir davantage et lire les articles de ce dossier, veuillez visiter  cette page (en anglais)

Special Report on Africa: Realizing Africa’s Potential

There’s a renewed interest in Africa’s agriculture, with business and governments moving towards developing its vast potential. This special report highlighted by the Skoll World Forum aims to find what are going to be the game-changing innovations and how the financing of this sector can be unlocked.  Leading decision-makers in business, policy and development, partnered with the Rockefeller Foundation, the Financial Times' This Is Africa gives us some answers to these questions.

Among the featured articles:

To learn more about this special report and read the articles, please click here

Ousmane Aly DIALLO

mardi 20 août 2013

FGM: The Dynamics of Change

This blog, by Wikichild Co-ordinator Melinda George, is part of the Wikiprogress Series on the Wikiprogress Africa Network. This post provides a summary of the UNICEF report entitled “Female genital mutilation/cutting: a statistical overview and exploration of the dynamics of change.” 

When I first heard of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C), I was mortified. Upon reading this UNICEF report, I realized that my previous impressions - that this practice it only occurs in small African villages and affects very few women -  were misconceptions. Only now is reliable data on FGM/C available, giving us a clearer picture about the practice, at least for all 29 countries where the practice is concentrated. The report addresses key questions: How many girls and women have undergone FGM/C? Where is the practice most prevalent? How does this concentration vary within countries and across population groups? 

This WHO report defines FGM/C as “all procedures involving partial or total removal of the female external genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons,” and the Organization categorizes the procedure into 4 types. In 2012, the UN General Assembly unanimously passed a resolution that banned FGM/C. Twenty-six countries in Africa and the Middle East have prohibited FGM/C by law; however, the legislation has proven ineffective. The practice remains widespread in 24 counties where FGM/C is illegal. 

There is a social obligation to perform the procedure and the belief that if one does not, then the consequence could include exclusion, criticism, ridicule, stigma or inability to find suitable marriage partners. Relatively few women reported concern over marriage prospects as justification for FGM/C, except in Eritrea and Sierra Leone. The primary benefit cited among men and women was social acceptance and preserving virginity.

In the 29 countries assessed, more than 125 million girls and women alive today have undergone FGM/C, and in the next decade, another 30 million are at risk. There is a large variation in percentages of cut females across the countries. The countries are divided into 5 categories based on their prevalence levels of FGM/C. One in five cut girls live in one country: Egypt.

Variation among regions within a country can be striking, as seen in this map of Senegal (right).

The age at which the procedure is carried out varies across countries. In Somalia, Egypt, Chad and the Central African Republic, at least 80% of cut girls were between 5 and 14 years old. In Nigeria, Mali, Eritrea, Ghana and Mauritania, at least 80% of cut girls were younger than 5. Half of cut girls in Kenya were older than 9 when they had the procedure performed.

Initially, opposition towards the practice focused on health risks, which may have unintentionally encouraged medical professionals to carry out the practice. Traditional practitioners and, more specifically, traditional circumcisers usually perform FGM/C. Though, in countries such as Egypt, Sudan and Kenya, many medical personnel now complete the procedure. In Egypt, for example, 77% of procedures were carried out mostly by doctors, and around half of those procedures were performed at the girl’s home.

Ethnicity still plays a strong role in some countries, as it may be a proxy for shared norms and values. Also, the practice remains to be a physical marker of insider/outsider status. This graph belowshows the degree of variability in FGM/C prevalence among ethnic lines by contrasting ethnic groups with the highest and lowest prevalence in countries.

Regarding religion, the practice is most prevalent among Muslim girls and women; however, it is also found among Catholic and other Christian communities. In Niger, for example, 55% of Christian girls and women have undergone FGM/C, compared to 2% of Muslim girls and women.

There is also a rural-urban divide, an income divide, and an education divide. In Kenya, for example, the percentage of girls in rural areas was four times that of those in urban areas. In most instances, daughters of wealthier families were less likely to be cut. In terms of education, the prevalence of FGM/C was highest among daughters of women with no education, and tends to diminish considerably as the mother’s educational level rises. The reason given for these trends is due to the fact that those in urban areas, in wealthier households, or with a higher educational level are more likely to interact with individuals and groups that do not practice FGM/C, shifting normative expectations around FGM/C as a result.

Support for the continuation of FGM/C varies across countries. In most countries (19 out of 29), a majority of girls and women think the practice should end (see graph below). Nevertheless, more than half the female population in Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Gambia and Egypt think FGM/C should continue. More men than women favored stopping the practice, especially in Guinea, Sierra Leone and Chad. When fathers were included in the decision-making, their daughters were less likely to be cut. 

FGM/C remains a complicated issue, and this report does not give the whole picture; FGM/C is being performed outside these 29 countries, including  in Europe and North America. The fight against FGM/C has just begun. Stronger efforts will be essential in order to transform the cultural traditions and expectations ingrained in these societies. 

Fortunately, this report gives us a better understanding of FGM/C and, more importantly, an evidence base to begin measuring progress in this area. We know there have already been steps forward in terms of awareness, decreased health risks and legislative bans, but now we can track progress inside countries regarding specific population groups, procedures and attitudes. Hopefully, this evidence base will help us be more effective in promptly eliminating the practice. 

*This week's Wikiprogress spotlight is on the Wikiprogress America Latina Network 

Appel à contributions: Indicateurs d'Intégrité Africaines

Global Integrity s’engage dans un partenariat avec la Fondation Mo Ibrahim (Mo Ibrahim Foundation) pour préparer les Indicateurs d’Intégrité Africaines (African Integrity Indicators) 2013-2014. Le projet évalue les mécanismes clés sur le plan social, économique, politique et de lutte contre la corruption, au niveau national dans tous les pays africains. Grâce à une méthodologie d’évaluation spécialisée, le projet évalue le cadre juridique mais aussi la mise en œuvre de ce cadre et l’application pratique de la loi à travers diverses catégories, dont la sécurité et l’état de droit, les perspectives économiques durables et le développement humain.

Afin de réaliser ce projet, nous avons besoin d’une équipe internationale de journalistes, chercheurs et spécialistes dans le domaine pour mener des recherches et recueillir des données pour alimenter la base de données Ibrahim Index of African Governance. Pour obtenir des informations sur les conditions de participation et pour savoir comment soumettre une candidature, merci de consulter la fiche de données ci-dessous.

Quels profils cherchent-ils? 
Des journalistes professionnels, des universitaires, des agents d’organisations non-gouvernementales et du secteur privé ayant une expérience avérée dans la conduite d’entrevues et la recherche documentaire au sein d’une grande équipe de recherche. Les autres exigences sont le respect des délais, et la capacité à répondre aux questions dans les meilleurs délais. Les candidats intéressés, y compris ceux qui ont déjà travaillé avec nous, doivent soumettre une candidature en ligne ici:

Calendrier et disponibilité requis:
Les chercheurs principaux commencent leurs recherches sur le terrain en septembre 2013 et ils auront quatre semaines pour soumettre des réponses liées à environ 120 indicateurs (questions). Ils doivent être disponibles pour clarifier tout aspect de leurs recherches dans les plus brefs délais, jusqu’à la fin de novembre 2013. Les évaluateurs doivent être disponibles pour vérifier les données entre novembre 2013 et janvier 2014 dans un délai court (2-3 jours) et ils doivent avoir le temps pour effectuer ce contrôle rapidement.

Les postes restent affichés jusqu’ à ce qu’ils soient pourvus.

Pour en découvrir davantage sur ce projet, veuillez visiter cette page :

Call for Contributions: African Integrity Indicators

Global Integrity is embarking on a partnership with the Mo Ibrahim Foundation to prepare the African Integrity Indicators (AII) 2013-2014. The project assesses key social, economic, political and anti-corruption mechanisms at the national level in all African countries. Through an expert assessment methodology, the project evaluates both legal frameworks and the practical implementation and enforcement of those frameworks across various categories, including safety and the rule of law, sustainable economic opportunity, and human development.

This effort will require a global team of journalists, researchers and subject matter experts across Africa to conduct original research and gather data that will feed into the Ibrahim Index of African Governance. For information on the requirements and how to apply, please see the fact sheet below. 

What are they looking for?
Professionals from the fields of journalism, academia, non-governmental organizations, and the private sector with a proven track record of performing high-quality interviews and desk research, meeting deadlines, and promptly responding to queries as part of a large research team. Interested candidates, including those who have worked with us before, should apply online by visiting

Timing and necessary availability
Lead Researchers will begin fieldwork in September 2013, will have four weeks to submit answers to roughly 120 indicators (questions), and must be available to promptly clarify any aspect of their research through November 2013. Reviewers must be available to perform their review of data between November 2013 and January 2014 and have time to review at short notice and with a quick turnaround (2-3 days).

Positions are open until filled.
To learn more about this project, please visit this page:

vendredi 16 août 2013

World Health Report, an African View of the Post 2015 and Ground Level Panels

Hello everyone and welcome to this week in review. Among this week’s highlights:

  •  The 2013 Global Food Security Index by the Economist Intelligence Unit, the 2013 Global Food Security Index shows that Sub-Saharan African nations made progress this past year, with the top three most improved Sub-Saharan countries - EthiopiaBotswana and Niger - rising an average of eight places in the index. Improvements were attributed to greater food availability and income growth. Of the 10 countries whose scores improved the most, five were in Sub-Saharan Africa, including two of the top three.

  • The Service Delivery Indicators Initiative: Monitoring Health and Education performances in Africa. This blog addresses the main contribution of the recently launched Service Delivery Indicators in the monitoring of health and education policies in Africa and its potential impact of governance and transparency through the collection, management and availability of data in these two sectors. The video below shows how healthcare provision is improved in three Nigerian states 

  • The 2013 World Health Report was published this August 15th by the World Health Organization. The World Health Report: Research for Universal Health Coverage focuses on the importance of research in advancing progress towards universal health coverage. In addition, it identifies the benefits of increased investment in health research by low- and middle-income countries using case studies from around the world, and proposes ways to further strengthen this type of research.

We hope you enjoyed this review. Stay tuned the same time next week for another riveting read on the week that was.

Yours in progress,

mercredi 14 août 2013

Reflecting the Realities, Needs and Priorities in Monitoring Human and Social Development in Africa Beyond 2015

This blog, by Wikiprogress Africa Co-ordinator Ousmane Aly DIALLO, is part of the Wikiprogress Series on the Wikiprogress Africa Network and on the Post-2015. This post provides a summary of UNECA’s working paper on the Post-2015  “Working Document on the New Development Indicators Reflecting the Realities, Needs and Priorities in Monitoring Human and Social Development in Africa Beyond 2015” .

With the deadline of the Millennium Development Goals coming fast ahead, most of the stakeholders are already thinking on what needs to be done after 2015 and how the MDG framework can be improved.  As one of the continent most concerned about the challenges of poverty and the well-being of its citizens, Africa is still working on a framework that will encompass all aspects of human and social development. This Working Document on the New Development Indicators Reflecting the Realities, Needs and Priorities in Monitoring Human and Social Development in Africa Beyond 2015, is part of this process.

The limited and modest progress made by African countries towards the achievement of  the MDGs is problematic. Were all the countries on the same footing at the start? Were the goals ever meant to be monitored at the national level? Besides, it somewhat conceals disparities between the different social groups and subnational regions. Considering only the national scope hides from us local and regional inequalities that must be progressively eradicated. It is to be noted in particular that the results obtained from the overall indicators are distorted as they only relate to certain categories of the population.
Progress towards the Millennium Development Goals in Africa

Inequalities and disparities within countries didn’t appear on the MDG framework which gave a distorted view of the reality. Social (ethnicities, castes) and regional (urban/rural) factors all had an impact of the social and human development of people but they weren’t necessarily captured with the national MDG progress ranking. Any new framework has to take into consideration these factors, and since the high-level panel of Eminent Persons has pledged that no one should be left behind, the African concerns are in concordance with the overall direction of the post-2015 framework.

Among the limits put forward, there’s the insufficient place given to the economy in the current MDG framework. The paper stresses the need to start from a strong and competitive economy to improve the well-being and quality of life of citizens through job creation and other targets. This vision is evident in the pyramid of “balanced development” below:

Besides this limit, there is the problem of the poor performance of Africa in regard to the Millennium Development Goals. Most of Sub-Saharan Africa is still lagging behind while the North of the continent is doing much better. This overall modest progress is attributed to several factors in this document, among other the very ambitious goals and the shortcomings in the budgetary policy choices and inefficiency in public expenditures. Despite these limits, the MDGs constitute a big step towards the well-being of people by setting different and complementary targets and pushing all states to achieve them by the end of  a specific date. With less than 1000 days remaining now, some are pushing for an extension of the MDGs while the majority suggest a slight adjustment or more radically a whole rethinking of the MDG framework.

UNECA’s African Centre for Statistics fall in the middle of this debate through their proposals for a new post-2015 framework. Indicators must be based on the development needs of countries according to the report which stresses that all African countries are working on their national development strategies and / or fight against poverty. Yet, there is insufficient convergence between African countries in the choice of indicators and that’s one of the main reasons of the indicators put forward in this document.

Development targets relevant to the African countries were thus identified and to monitor the progress into their achievements, they need to be classified depending on dimensions and the levels of government.

  • International stakeholders should deal only with a “very restrictive list of basic indicators that each country should monitor to ensure a decent living for the whole population”. Giving every citizen of the world a basic quality of life should be the aim and that was at the root of the MDGs before their expansion with uneven indicators. The current MDGs still remain relevant although some targets and indicators needs to be improved.
  • Secondary indicators that will speed up the transition to a pre-emergent stage (MDGs+) are to be monitored at the sub-regional and regional level. The current eight MDGs remain relevant as a whole but their associated targets and indicators should be better selected. Among the indicators, relevant to this level, are secondary, technical and higher education, infrastructure, macroeconomic framework, regional financial markets, regional integration policies, good governance, transfer of technology and development of internally generated knowledge.
  • Policies targeting growth and employment should be at the national level. Emergence indicators (MDGs ++) must be monitored by the states with efficient regional organizations such as ECOWAS providing backup and integrating these policies into their monitoring systems.

The different development goals were broken down into several dimensions:
  • Human dimension with indicators such as (a) access to knowledge by all; (b) gender development
  • Infrastructure dimension:  with universal access to potable water, sewerage facilities, electric­ity, ICT, housing and good transport system.
  •  Environmental dimension where the fight against pollution and the preservation of the biodi­versity can be included.
At the subregional and regional integration, an
  • Institutional dimension should be put forward with the strengthening of public institutions as  the indicator,
  • Economic dimension with  (a) a stable macroeconomic framework; (b) strong and regular growth; (c) capacity for diversification and transformation and a
  •  Social dimension with indicators such as  a) a well-fed population; (b) good health for all; (c) good social se­curity for all the vulnerable groups; (d) employment and income for all; (e) child protec­tion; (f) preservation and development of the cultural heritage.
To have a broader view of all the development indicators, please go to the annex of the document (click here).

The development indicators put forward constitute a significant contribution towards the post-2015 development framework. The scope of the indicators and the different levels of government involved in their monitoring are proof enough of the ambitions of its authors. Furthermore, they echo the HLP’s call to leave no one behind in the post-2015 framework. Economic growth occupies an integral place in this proposal although other quality of life dimensions are not neglected. 

There's a clear distinction on what should be of what should be monitored at the national level and how  the international level could stimulate the progress towards development.

lundi 12 août 2013

2013 Global Food Security Index

Developed by the Economist Intelligence Unit, the 2013 Global Food Security Index shows that Sub-Saharan African nations made progress this past year, with the top three most improved Sub-Saharan countries - EthiopiaBotswana and Niger - rising an average of eight places in the index. Improvements were attributed to greater food availability and income growth. Of the 10 countries whose scores improved the most, five were in Sub-Saharan Africa, including two of the top three.

The Global Food Security Index considers the core issues of affordability, availability, and quality across a set of 107 countries. The index is a dynamic quantitative and qualitative scoring model, constructed from 27 unique indicators, that measures these drivers of food security across both developing and developed countries.

Among this year's report key findings:
  • Overall food security was little changed from last year:The average score for all countries in the latest index was 53.5, virtually unchanged from 53.6 in the 2012 model. No region’s score improved dramatically, but Sub-Saharan Africa showed the biggest gain, climbing by just under one point.
  • Political conflict had a negative impact on food security in Mali, Yemen and Syria during the past year: these three countries recorded some of the biggest declines in the index, dropping 14, seven and seven places, respectively.
  • Falling national incomes hurt food security in some developed countries over the past year.
  • Some emerging markets appear well positioned to respond to urbanisation and the implications for food security:Sierra Leone ranked at the top of this year’s new urbanisation indicator, which measures the capacity of governments to support the food needs of growing cities.
  • Political stability and democratic reform are strongly tied to food security: Countries that experienced significant improvements in political stability and democratic rights in the past year, such as Myanmar and Sri Lanka, also improved their food security ranking. Myanmar rose five places overall, while Sri Lanka climbed by four. 
  • Dietary protein consumption increased in 62% of countries in the index.

To download the report, please visit this page

lundi 5 août 2013

Service Delivery Indicators: Promouvoir l'efficacité en éducation et en santé

Ce blog, écrit par Ousmane Aly Diallo, fait partie du focus de Wikiprogress sur son réseau africain

Après des phases pilotes en Tanzanie et au Sénégal en 2010, la Banque Mondiale en partenariat avec la Banque Africaine de développement, le consortium de recherche économique africain, le  Kenya Institute for Public Policy Research and Analysis (KIPPRA) a lancé les  Service Delivery Initiative (SDI), ce 12 juillet. Cet index vise à déterminer l’état de la performance en santé et en éducation du Kenya et de voir à quel point les dépenses dans ces domaines se reflètent dans le développement humain des populations.

Un meilleur suivi des politiques avec des données fiables
Le manque de données fiables et la faiblesse  statistique ont été longtemps un problème pour établir avec précision les progrès dans le bien-être ainsi que l'impact des politiques gouvernementales dans plusieurs pays africains (lire la suite). Il en est de même pour les organisations internationales (voir les Stratégies Nationales de Développement de la Statistique de Paris21 comme un exemple de renforcement des capacités statistiques dans les pays en développement). Le SDI est destiné à aider les gouvernements à déterminer ce qui fonctionne bien dans leurs systèmes de santé et d'éducation national et, le cas échéant, les réajustements à faire et ce qui doit être repensé complètement et cela, par le biais  de sondages visant les professionnels de la santé et de l’éducation dans les pays-cibles.
Trois variables principales sont présentes dans les questionnaires thèses:
• Les compétences des professionnels de la santé et de l’éducation (Que savent-ils?);
• Leur investissement dans leur travail (Que font-ils?), Et
• La qualité de leur environnement de travail (Avec quoi travaillent-ils?)

Au Kenya, près de 5000 professionnels de la santé et de l'éducation dans 600 établissements ont été interrogés lors de la première enquête intégrale sur la qualité de l’éducation et de la santé SDI (voir ici). Les résultats montrent que les enseignants des écoles publiques et privées ont la même probabilité de travailler, mais ceux du secteur public restent moins de temsps en classe, pour dispenser leur enseignement (à hauteur de 50% de moins). Ceci est principalement dû au système scolaire public ayant 20 jours d'enseignement de moins par trimestre.
En outre, seulement 35% des enseignants ont montré une maîtrise de leurs sujets. Dans un contexte  de campagne pour l'éducation de base et la réalisation de la parité entre filles / garçons dans l'enseignement primaire, le faible taux montre qu’il y’a toujours des défis à relever dans ce domaine. Renforcer les compétences et la maîtrise des enseignants apparaît ainsi comme un élément aussi important que l’éducation des enfants.
Dans le secteur de la santé, plus de 29% des prestataires de santé étaient absents, et 80% de ces absences ont été signalées et sanctionnées. En outre, seulement 58% des prestataires de santé publics pouvaient diagnostiquer 4 maladies courantes sur 5 telles que la diarrhée avec déshydratation ou le paludisme avec anémie. En outre, les prestataires de santé ont utilisé moins de la moitié des procédures de traitement appropriées pour gérer les complications maternelles et néonatales. De même la disponibilité des médicaments pour les mères reste un défi (ici). Ce dernier résultat est particulièrement révélateur, car la santé maternelle est l'un des principaux enjeux en Afrique. Par conséquent, on est plus proches de le surmonter en identifiant où les principales défaillances se trouvent. Disposer de ces données à ce niveau de détail est l'une des principales contributions de cette initiative.

Développement humain et dépenses publiques.

“We cannot manage what we cannot measure. We count what we value”. Le soubassement des Service Delivery Indicators peut-être retracé à cette phrase. Bien qu'une partie importante de leur budget soit consacrée à l'éducation et la santé, les dépenses de nombre d’États africains n’ont pas toujours été en adéquation avec les demandes de leurs populations. La Banque mondiale estime que les gouvernements des pays en développement consacrent, en moyenne, un tiers de leurs budgets à l'éducation et à la santé (lire la suite). Dans un contexte de ralentissement économique et de demande croissante de transparence, évaluer les conditions des systèmes de santé et d’éducation, les compétences du personnel enseignant et de santé, dans quelle mesure ils sont équipés et comment ils peuvent être aidés est une étape vers le bien-être social des populations. Les écoles et les établissements de santé sont mal équipés en termes d'infrastructures (en particulier dans les zones rurales) et les compétences sont souvent en-deçà de la moyenne. En outre, dans les domaines de l'éducation et de la santé, vu les ressources investies et sa faible traduction en termes de développement humain, on ne peut que considérer le verre à moitié vide (voir la page 9 de ce document).

Le SDI est destiné à discerner les  causes de cet écart, de déterminer comment rendre les praticiens de la santé et des prestataires de services éducatifs plus performants, et d'établir des mesures correctives structurelles si le besoin s’impose.

Service Delivery Indicators et Open Data
L'une des principales contributions de cette initiative est la provision de données précises concernant la qualité des services d'éducation et de santé à la fois aux décideurs et aux citoyens. En outre, puisqu'il s'agit d'une initiative panafricaine, il contribuera à améliorer la qualité de ces services grâce à des comparaisons et de tirer parti de ce qui a été fait dans les pays où les performances sont meilleures. La standardisation des indicateurs permettant des comparaisons entre les États et les entités sous-nationales. Les régions où les performances sont faibles ayant de même de meilleures chances de voir la qualité des services en cours d'amélioration avec les Service Delivery Indicators.
Étant donné que les enquêtes sont destinées à être refait sur une base biennale, les progrès dans ce domaine peuvent être facilement vu et contrôlé.

La transparence des dépenses publiques et la responsabilisation des gouvernements envers leurs citoyens sont susceptibles d'être deux des externalités de cette initiative. La Banque africaine de développement a récemment lancé sa plate-forme Open Data pour l'Afrique, qui fournit des données utiles sur le bien-être et le développement des questions pour les 54 pays africains, tout en donnant la flexibilité et un levier pour l'utilisateur. Ces deux initiatives donnent une meilleure vue de ce qui doit être fait par les décideurs politiques et les citoyens, ainsi que par les ONG et les organisations internationales. Ce qui compte pour les citoyens et les moyens de favoriser leur bien-être sera encore plus évident avec cette initiative.